Soil erosion is one of the most significant causes of land degradation and an important environmental hazard throughout the world, especially in developing countries. Sediment yield and soil erosion are two main constraints on sustainable management of water resources and soil. The quantification of these processes is crucial to design any scientifically based soil and water conservation plan and integrated land management. The acceleration of soil erosion due to human activities on a global scale has led to an increased sediment flow in many parts of the world. Unwanted complementary effects of soil erosion, such as loss of soil fertility, reduced water quality, alteration of the hydrological systems, and environmental contaminations, have been identified as a serious problem for human sustainability. Land cover and land use changes are key factor in controlling the hydrological response of a watershed. Many studies have shown that there is a significant relationship between land use change and soil erosion. Land use change may result in an increase of sediment and nutrient supply to rivers and may affect the water balance in the watershed and its variability, which must be assessed on a local scale.
Direct measurement of soil erosion in watersheds and water-sediment sampling is very time consuming and costly. Therefore, the use of soil erosion and sediment yield models at watershed scale is globally raising the interest of specialists. The quantitative understanding of hydrological process at watershed scale also needs the modelling of microscale processes, such as infiltration, permeability and even water and particles transport processes in porous soils. Many models, such as the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEEP), Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems (CREAMS), European Soil Erosion Model (EuroSEM), and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), have been developed with varying degrees of complexity in order to fulfil the growing request for a reliable and easy to manage tool to predict erosion and sediment yield.
The main problem of the process-based models is the large number of input parameters and the lack of data to validate the model predictions. Therefore, empirical models for soil erosion assessment play an important role in soil conservation planning.
The Erosion Potential Method - EPM (Gavrilovic, 1972) is empirical model originally developed for Yugoslavia and used in many studies, especially to investigate the effect of land use on soil erosion and sediment yield. Applicability of the EPM method in analyzing erosion potential using spatial data manipulation techniques (GIS environment) was also applied, the first tested in the research of Globevnik et al (2003).
The Intensity of Erosion and Outflow (IntErO) of Spalevic (2011) is a program package with the EPM integrated into the algorithm for Windows Operating System.
The IntErO model
Predicting sediment yield at the catchment scale is one of the main challenges in geomorphologic research. The research of the calculation of soil erosion intensity and torrents in Yugoslavia was initiated by the team of the researchers from the Jaroslav Cerni Institute for the Development of Water Resources in 1947. The first method that was developed in Yugoslavia was the Method for the Quantitative Classification of Erosion - MQCE (1954). The erosion intensity from the river basin was calculated by computing the amount of sediment that reaches the downstream part at the lowest point of the basin (H min). The process of the methodology development for investigation erosion process, mapping, sediment calculating and torrent classification continuous and resulted with the establishment of the Erosion Potential Method – EPM in 1968.
The IntErO model (Spalevic, 2011) uses the Erosion Potential Method (Gavrilovic, 1972) in its algorithm background. The IntErO model, an upgrading of the Surface and Distance Measuring (Spalevic, 1999; Spalevic et al, 1999) and River Basins (Spalevic, 1999; Spalevic et al, 2000) programs and can be used for handling a large number of data with the processing of 27 inputs, returning, after the calculations, 22 final result parameters (Coefficient of the river basin form, A; Coefficient of the watershed development, m; Average river basin width, B; (A)symmetry of the river basin, a; Density of the river network of the basin, G; Coefficient of the river basin tortuousness, K; Average river basin altitude, Hsr; Average elevation difference of the river basin, D; Average river basin decline, Isr; The height of the local erosion base of the river basin, Hleb; Coefficient of the erosion energy of the river basin’s relief, Er; Coefficient of the region’s permeability, S1; Coefficient of the vegetation cover, S2; Analytical presentation of the water retention in inflow, W; Energetic potential of water flow during torrent rains, 2×gDF^½; Maximal outflow from the river basin, Qmax; Temperature coefficient of the region, T; Coefficient of the river basin erosion, Z; Production of erosion material in the river basin, Wyear; Coefficient of the deposit retention, Ru; Real soil losses, Gsp; Real soil losses per km2.
For calculations model needs the following NUMERICAL VALUES as inputs: (1) The surface of River basin area, F [km²]; (2) The length of the watershed (perimeter), O [km]; (3) Natural length of the main watercourse, Lv [km]; (4) The shortest distance between the fountainhead and mouth, Lm [km]; (5) The total length of the main watercourse with tributaries of I and II class, ΣL [km]; (6) River basin length measured by a series of parallel lines, Lb [km]; (7) The area of the larger river basin part, Fv [km²]; (8) The area of the smaller river basin part, Fm [km²]; (9) Contour lines length, Liz [km]; (10) The area between the two neighboring contour lines, fiz [km²].
The model considers factors related to lithology (rocks permeability by percentage: fp, permeable; fpp, semipermeable; fo, low permeability) and soil type (erodibility coefficient, Y); topographic and relief data (I coefficient), monthly mean and annual precipitation (P coefficient), temperatures annual averages (t coefficient); land cover data (Xa coefficient of the River basin planning): 1. Bare lands; 2. Plough-lands; 3. Meadows; 4. Mountain pastures; 5. Orchards and vineyards; 6. Degraded forests; 7. Well-constituted forests; and finally the state of erosion patterns, and development of the watercourse network (Φ coefficient).
The IntErO model can be characterized as semi-quantitative because it is based on a combination of descriptive and quantitative procedures. Compared to other semi-quantitative methods, this is the most quantitative because it uses descriptive evaluation for three parameters only: soil erodibility, soil protection, and the extent of erosion in the catchment.
Figure: Flow chart of the Intensity of Erosion and Outflow (IntErO) model with the details on key inputs and outputs
Link: IntErO model - New technical solution (method) applied at the international level
SOME EXAMPLES OF THE IntErO APPLICATION:
Spalevic, V.; Barovic, G.; Vujacic, D.; Curovic, M.; Behzadfar, M.; Djurovic, N.; Dudic, B.; Billi, P. The Impact of Land Use Changes on Soil Erosion in the River Basin of Miocki Potok, Montenegro. Water 2020, 12, 2973. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112973
Sakuno, N.R.R., Guicardi, A.C.F., Spalevic, V., Avanzi, J.C., Silva, M.L.N., Mincato, R.L. (2020): Adaptation and application of the erosion potential method for tropical soils. Revista Ciência Agronômica, 51(1): e20186545. Epub February 03, 2020.
Mohammadi, M.; Khaledi Darvishan, A.K.; Spalevic, V.; Dudic, B.; Billi, P. Analysis of the Impact of Land Use Changes on Soil Erosion Intensity and Sediment Yield Using the IntErO Model in the Talar Watershed of Iran. Water 2021, 13, 881. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060881
Ouallali, A,; Aassoumi, H.; Moukhchane, M.; Moumou, A.; Houssni, M.; Spalevic, V.; Keesstra, S. (2020) Sediment mobilization study on Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary lithological formations of an external Rif catchment, Morocco, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 65:9, 1568-1582, https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2020.1755435
(link to download the peper)
Spalevic, V., Zejak, D., Curovic, M., Glisic, I., Radovic, A. (2021): Analysis of the impact of fruit growing development on the intensity of soil erosion and runoff: Case study of Krusevo, Bijelo Polje, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 67 (2): 37-51 (link to download the paper)
Tavares, A.S.; Uagoda, R.E.S.; Spalevic, V.; Mincato, R.L. (2021): Analysis of the erosion potential and sediment yield using the IntErO model in an experimental watershed dominated by karst in Brazil. Agriculture and Forestry, 67 (2): 153-16 (link to download the paper)
Spalevic, V. (2019): Assessment of soil erosion processes by using the ‘IntErO’ model: Case study of the Duboki Potok, Montenegro. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology 20 (2): 657–665. Link to the paper: http://www.jepe-journal.info/journal-content/vol-20-no2
Direct link to the paper: (link)
Chalise, D.; Kumar, L.; Spalevic, V.; Skataric, G. Estimation of Sediment Yield and Maximum Outflow Using the IntErO Model in the Sarada River Basin of Nepal. Water 2019, 11, 952. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050952
Khaledi Darvishan, A., Mohammadi, M., Skataric, G., Popovic, S., Behzadfar, M., Rodolfo Ribeiro Sakuno, N., Luiz Mincato, R., Spalevic, V. (2019): Assessment of soil erosion, sediment yield and maximum outflow, using IntErO model (Case study: S8-IntA Shirindarreh Watershed, Iran). Agriculture and Forestry, 65 (4), 203-210. https://doi.org/10.17707/AgricultForest.65.4.18
El Mouatassime, S., Boukdir, A., Karaoui, I., Skataric, G., Nacka, M., Khaledi Darvishan, A., Sestras, P., Spalevic, V. (2019): Modelling of soil erosion processes and runoff for sustainable watershed management: Case study Oued el Abid Watershed, Morocco. Agriculture and Forestry 65 (4), 241-250. https://doi.org/10.17707/AgricultForest.65.4.22
Nikolic, G., Spalevic, V., Curovic, M., Khaledi Darvishan, A., Skataric, G., Pajic, M., Kavian, A., & Tanaskovik, V. (2018). Variability of Soil Erosion Intensity Due to Vegetation Cover Changes: Case Study of Orahovacka Rijeka, Montenegro. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 47(1), 237-248. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha47111310
Khaledi Darvishan, A., Derikvandi, M., Aliramaee, R., Khorsand, M., Spalevic, V., Gholami, L., Vujacic, D. (2018): Efficiency of INTERO model to predict soil erosion intensity and sediment yield in Khamsan representative watershed (West of Iran). AGROFOR International Journal, 3 (2): 22-31. https://doi.org/10.7251/AGRENG1802022K
Vujacic, D., Barovic, G., Djekovic, V., Andjelkovic, A., Khaledi Darvishan, A., Gholami, L., Jovanovic, M. and Spalevic, V. (2017): Calculation of Sediment Yield using the “River Basin” and “Surface and Distance” Models: A Case Study of the Sheremetski Potok Watershed, Montenegro. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 18(3): 1193-1202.
Spalevic, V., Lakicevic, M., Radanovic, D., Billi, P., Barovic, G., Vujacic, D., Sestras, P., Khaledi Darvishan, A. (2017): Ecological-Economic (Eco-Eco) modelling in the river basins of Mountainous regions: Impact of land cover changes on sediment yield in the Velicka Rijeka in Montenegro. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca: 45(2):602-610. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha45210695
Spalevic, V., Radanovic, D., Skataric, G., Billi. P., Barovic, G., Curovic, M., Sestras, P., and Khaledi Darvishan A. (2017): Ecological-economic (eco-eco) modelling in the mountainous river basins: Impact of land cover changes on soil erosion. Agriculture and Forestry, 63 (4): 9-25.
Khaledi Darvishan A., Behzadfar M., Spalevic V., Kalonde P., Ouallali A., Mouatassime E. S., (2017) Calculation of sediment yield in the S2-1 watershed of the Shirindareh river basin, Iran, Agriculture and Forestry, 63 (3): 23-32. https://doi.org/10.17707/AgricultForest.63.3.03
Vujacic, D., Spalevic, V. (2016): Assessment of Runoff and Soil Erosion in the Radulicka Rijeka Watershed, Polimlje, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 62 (2): 283-292. https://doi.org/10.17707/AgricultForest.62.2.25
Spalevic, V., Curovic, M., Barovic, G., Vujacic, D., Tunguz, V. and Djurovic, N. (2015): Soil erosion in the river basin of Provala, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 61(4): 133-143. https://doi.org/10.17707/AgricultForest.61.4.14
Barovic, G. and Spalevic, V. (2015): Calculation of runoff and soil erosion intensity in the Rakljanska Rijeka watershed, Polimlje, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 61(4): 109-115. https://doi.org/10.17707/AgricultForest.61.4.11
Barovic, G., Leandro Naves Silva, M., Veloso Gomes Batista, P., Vujacic, D., Soares Souza, W., Cesar Avanzi, J., Behzadfar M., Spalevic, V. (2015): Estimation of sediment yield using the IntErO model in the S1-5 Watershed of the Shirindareh River Basin, Iran. Agriculture and Forestry (61): 3: 233-243. https://doi.org/10.17707/AgricultForest.61.3.23
Vujacic, D., Barovic, G., Tanaskovikj, V., Kisic, I., Song, X., Silva, M.L.N. and Spalevic, V. (2015). Calculation of runoff and sediment yield in the Pisevska Rijeka Watershed, Polimlje, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 61 (2): 225-234. https://doi.org/10.17707/AgricultForest.61.2.20
Behzadfar, M., Tazioli, A., Vukelic-Shutoska, M., Simunic, I. Spalevic, V. (2014): Calculation of sediment yield in the S1 - 1 Watershed, Shirindareh Watershed, Iran. Agriculture and Forestry, 60 (4): 207-216.
Spalevic, V., Railic, B., Djekovic, V., Andjelkovovic, A. and Curovic, M. (2014): Calculation of the Soil Erosion Intensity and Runoff of the Lapnjak Watershed, Polimlje, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 60 (2): 261- 271.
Spalevic, V., Radanovic, D., Behzadfar, M., Djekovic, V., Andjelkovic, A., Milosevic, N (2014): Calculation of the sediment yield of the Trebacka rijeka, Polimlje, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 60 (1): 259-272.
Spalevic, V., Hubl, J. Hasenauer, H. and Curovic, M. (2014): Calculation of soil erosion intensity in the Bosnjak Watershed, Polimlje River Basin, Montenegro. The 5th International Symposium “Agrosym 2014”, Jahorina, 23-26 October 2014, Bosnia and Herzegovina, p 730-738.
Spalevic, V., Grbovic, K., Gligorevic, K., Curovic, M. and Billi, P. (2013): Calculation of runoff and soil erosion on the Tifran watershed, Polimlje, North-East of Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 59 (4): 5-17.
Spalevic, V., Simunic, I., Vukelic-Sutoska, M., Uzen, N., Curovic, M. (2013): Prediction of the soil erosion intensity from the River Basin Navotinski, Polimlje (Northeast Montenegro). Agriculture and Forestry, 59 (2): 9-20.
Spalevic, V., Mahoney, W., Djurovic, N., Uzen, U. and Curovic, M. (2012): Calculation of soil erosion intensity and maximum outflow from the Rovacki River Basin, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 58(3): 7-21.
Spalevic, V., Curovic, M., Borota, D. and Fustic, B. (2012): Soil erosion in the River Basin Zeljeznica, area of Bar, Montenegro. Agriculture and Forestry, 54 (1-4): 5-24.
Literature recommended to be considered:
Amini, H., Honarjoo, N., Jalaliyan, A., Khalilizadeh, M., Baharlouie, J. (2014): A comparison of EPM and WEPP models for estimating soil erosion of Marmeh Watershed in the South Iran. Agriculture & Forestry, 60 (4): 299-315.
Dragicevic N., Karleusa B., Ozanic N. (2017): Erosion Potential Method (Gavrilovic method) sensitivity analysis. Soil & Water Res., 12: 51-59. Link: https://doi.org/10.17221/27/2016-SWR
Dragicevic, N., Karleusa, B. & Ozanic, N. (2018) Modification of erosion potential method using climate and land cover parameters, Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 9:1, 1085-1105.
Dragicevic, N., Karleusa, B. i Ozanic, N. (2016). A review of the Gavrilovic method (Erosion Potential Method) application. Gradjevinar, 68 (09): 715-725.
Gavrilovic, S. (1957): Classification of Torrents in Grdelica Canyon and Quantitative Regime of Torrent-Borne Sediments, Institute Jaroslav Cerni, Belgrade.
Gavrilovic, S. (1966): Methodology for Classification of Erosion Processes and Mapping of Eroded Areas. Stage I, Institute Jaroslav Cerni, Belgrade.
Gavrilovic, S. (1968): Proposed Classification of Torrents for the Water Management Plan of Yugoslavia, Beograd, Institute Jaroslav Cerni, Belgrade.
Gavrilovic, S. (1970): Contribution to the Methodology for Research in Erosion Plots. In: International Seminar: Erosion, Torrents, and Alluvial Deposits, Belgrade.
Gavrilovic, S. (1972): Engineering of Torrential Flows and Erosion; Izgradnja: Belgrade, Serbia, 272p.
Globevnik, L.; Holjevic, D.; Petkovsek, G.; Rubinic, J. (2003): Applicability of the Gavrilovic method in erosion calculation using spatial data manipulation techniques. Int. Assoc. Hydrol. Sci. Publ. 279, 224–233.
Kostadinov, S.; Braunovic, S.; Dragicevic, S.; Zlatic, M.; Dragovic, N.; Rakonjac, N. (2018): Effects of Erosion Control Works: Case Study—Grdelica Gorge, the South Morava River (Serbia). Water, 10, 1094
Lazarevic, R. (1985): The new method for erosion coefficient determination – Z. (Novi postupak za odredjivanje koeficijenta erozije Z). Erosion bulletin, (Erozija – strucno-informativni bilten), 13, 54-61.
Milanesi L., Pilotti M., Clerici A. (2015): The Application of the Erosion Potential Method to Alpine Areas: Methodological Improvements and Test Case. In: Lollino G., Arattano M., Rinaldi M., Giustolisi O., Marechal JC., Grant G. (eds) Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 3. Springer, Cham
Poggetti, E.; Cencetti, C.; De Rosa, P.; Fredduzzi, A.; Rivelli, F.R. (2019): Sediment Supply and Hydrogeological Hazard in the Quebrada de Humahuaca (Province of Jujuy, Northwestern Argentina)—Rio Huasamayo and Tilcara Area. Geosciences, 9, 483.
Spalevic, V. (1999): Application of Computer-Graphic Methods in the Studies of Draining Out and Intensities of Ground Erosion in the Berane Valley. Master’s Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, p. 1-135.
Spalevic, V. Impact of Land Use on Runoff and Soil Erosion in Polimlje. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, 2011; pp. 1–260.
Link to download
Tosic, R., Dragicevic, S. & Lovric, N. (2012): Assessment of soil erosion and sediment yield changes using Erosion Potential Model – Case study: Republic of Srpska (BiH). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2012, (7)4: 147 – 154.
Link to download IntErO model: